January 1, 2004 Southwest Oregon
Cyclone and Eastside Blizzard

compiled by

Wolf Read


A rapidly deepening cyclone landed ashore in Curry County, OR, with a 986 mb center. For many places in the Northwest, especially in Central and East Oregon and much of Idaho, this was the big event of the winter. Comments in the National Climatic Data Center's Storm Data publication for January 2004, clearly indicate the exceptional nature of this disturbance: "An incredible storm concluded a very active holiday weather week in southeast Idaho," and, "An extraordinary winter storm struck Oregon and Northern California on January 1, 2004." Though it should be noted that, for Northern California, this storm event was not as intense as the string of storms that occurred during December 14-16, 2002.

The January 1st storm brought extreme southerly winds and heavy rain to Northern California and Southwest Oregon, a blizzard to Oregon's south central section and eastward, and thundersnow to Southeast Idaho accompanied by zero visibilities from blowing powder during a lashing gale. Heavy snow blanketed the Blue Mountains and Columbia Basin, and funneled westward to The Dalles where at least 8" accumulated. Cold air pulled straight through the Columbia River Gorge and other Cascades gaps pooled in the Willamette Valley north of the cyclone's path, and a brief period of heavy snow dropped 2 to 6 inches over much of the region, whisked along on a brisk northerly breeze.

Many people in Northwest Oregon will recall the devastating ice storm that occurred from January 5th to 7th. The January 1st cyclone helped set the stage for the big ice event. The heavy blanket of fresh snow laid across much of the Pacific Northwest helped to create a strong pool of cold air that would be the genesis of the great ice storm.

For the 2003-04 storm season, the January 1st storm caused the lowest pressure readings and strongest barometric tendencies across much of Northern California and Oregon. As if an echo from February 7, 2002, this cyclone developed explosively as it raced inland, and then maintained integrity even as it was raked by the rugged terrain of the west. Satellite images bore an uncanny resemblance to those taken nearly two years earlier. The January 1st low still had considerable strength as it moved into Montana and Wyoming.

For those interested in more details of the snow and ice from this time period, see George Taylor's report "Snow/Ice Event, December 29, 2003- early January, 2004". This summary includes some nice photographs.

Figures 1 and 2, below, are infrared satellite photos of the January 1, 2004 cyclone, top, and the February 7, 2002 storm, bottom, both taken at about the time that the prospective cyclones were making landfall in Southwest Oregon. The resemblance is striking, though there are differences. Like people, each storm is unique, and these two events each brought their own brand of hazardous weather to the Pacific Northwest.


The January 1, 2004 storm caught me visiting family in Pocatello, ID, a location that put me in ground zero of a spectacular display of Nature's raw power. Here's what I noted about this storm in my journal:

December 31, 2003: Wednesday, New Year's Eve

09:14 MST: (Laramie, WY) A storm's moving through southern Idaho right now--winter storm warnings are up for the SE highlands (not Pocatello) for 5 to 9" each 12 hour period, starting now! Snow will continue into Friday. A surface low will develop off of NorCal along a slow-moving baroclinic band. This low is expected to land in SW OR, cut across the state and move north of the Snake River Plain tomorrow; this could be a major snow/wind producer for Pocatello, like the last storm. We'll see. It might be a bit too warm. We have a potentially challenging drive in store. 09:22 MST.

21:13 MST: (Pocatello, ID) The drive across Wyoming was smooth and straightforward; the weather was generally mostly cloudy with lots of altostratus, becoming cloudy on the west side. Strong SW to W winds blew in central WY, fading to nearly calm at Rock Springs. The temp was cold, contributing to frigid wind chills. The landscape was covered in snow--limestone cliffs protruded from the white, and sage sat among drifts. Forests on the higher ridges were frosted with rime ice.

We started seeing snow in the Starr Valley, with a lowering ceiling. Wind blew old snow across the highway in spots--these were the first spots where snow accumulated, albiet in a thin layer, on the road. The snow increased to a good light fall by Montpelier. Thin snow covered the road completely. Light flakes continued into Soda Springs, with the road surface getting quite slick in places. A good wind blew plumes of snow across HWY 30 as we headed west through the Chesterfield Valley. Fish Creek Summit, a big concern during the drive, could have been bad, but lots of plowing and sanding made the drive easier than in the valleys. I-15 was quite treacherous in spots, with occasional cross-winds and moderate snow with large flakes. The highway is posted 75 mph. I did 40-50. The snowfall decreased some in the Pocatello area.

There's a ton of snow on the ground from the recent record-breaking storm: 14.2" fell in 24 hours officially. Huge snowplow berms adorn many of the streets and parking lots. Some parked cars on the street are "bermed in". It was interesting watching the depth of old accumulation slowly increase as we made our way across Wyoming. The focus of the storm had definitely been in SE Idaho. By Montpelier, the snow looked to be around 6" to 9"; at Green River maybe 3" to 4". The snow in Pocatello was wetter than usual, with a ratio of 1:10 instead of the usual 1:20. 22:51 MST.

January 1, 2004: Thursday, New Year's Day

08:46 MST: (Pocatello, ID) A low definitely curled up right off of SW OR and just made landfall now, or is close to it--looks to go south of North Bend; the low is wayyy south. It developed rapidly, not too dissimilar to 07FEB2002. Looks like snow has started across the Willamette Valley this morning as the E outflow from the Gorge set up due to circulation around the low. Snow is falling in Medford, apparently. 08:50 MST.

08:53 MST: Just saw the Doppler radar. The low is definitely inland, and went south of Eugene. Looks to be just south of Redmond now, moving fast. 08:54 MST.

10:17 MST: Light snow is flying on a steady south wind. Looks like our snowstorm is beginning. 10:18 MST.

11:48 MST: WOW! That low is huge, deep and well-organized. Looks like a slightly bigger 07FEB, with low center in in central Oregon right now. Amazing form. The center went over Roseburg--low pressure there 29.19". Strong falls and rises--up to a 4 mb/hr surge. Winds not strong there. Further south, the story was different. Medford SE peak 38 mph at 07:53, lopres 29.23". Crescent City SW peak 59 mph at 05:56 PST, lopres 29.23". Arcata WSW peak 39 mph at 06:31 PST, lopres 29.36". North winds in Willamette Valley: up to 22 mph out of 360 degrees at SLE (2-minute wind), lopres 29.25", recent heavy snow! Eugene has been snowing since 06:16 PST, heavy at times possibly 5-7" new based on liquid equivalent, lopres 29.21" at 07:54, now raining at 34 F. Beautiful!


Figure 3: Enhanced infrared satellite photo taken at 11:30 MST, near the time of the above journal entry. The low center is in central Oregon at this time, in the "dry slot." A distinct bent-back occlusion has swept across the Willamette Valley and into the Cascades. The cyclone's leading front is near the OR-ID border. Blizzard conditions developed along this line at many locations throughout Southern Oregon and Idaho.


The back edge of the storm's leading front is nearing the ID border. We're about to get into the thick of the storm. Looks like the low will track north of us, across the Central Idaho Mountains. Could get quite windy here. At 09:53 MST, the baro at Boise was 29.54" and falling, with winds at 120 degrees 23 mph gusting 32, peak 33. At 11:53 MST here (PIH), the baro was 29.64" and falling rapidly, 180 deg 28 mph gusting 33, peak 46 earlier, around 10:17 MST. Still quite windy here--Colorado blue spruces shaking about, with light snow. Temp at PIH 33 F, DP 28 F. 12:10 MST.

12:35 MST: The snow's starting to pick up, larger flakes, dense, and starting to accumulate. I measured the current snow depth in the back yard: 9.5" to 9.75" based on three measurements. NWS Pocatello website shows us under winter storm warning for possible accumulations of 3" to 7" by midnight, with south winds of 30 to 40 mph gusting to 50. Winter storm warning for the entire forecast area. This is a huge storm. 12:41 MST.

12:41 MST: Klamath falls got a major blizzard out of this storm. At 10:28 PST, winds 280 deg 39 mph gusting 61 peak 66 mph with heavy snow and blowing snow, lopres 29.28" at 07:26 PST. Pressure down to 29.25" at La Grande, still falling (11:35 PST), winds currently light. Lakeview 180 deg gusting to 49 mph at 07:15, lopres 29.35" at 07:35. Sexton Summit lopres 29.11"--lowest of anywhere, so looks like low went right over this region, wind reports low and mostly missing--anemometer likely iced. [The pressure notation referred to an altimeter reading; lowest SLP was 987.4 mb, which is 29.158".] Pressure still falling in Baker: 29.30" at 11:12. Redmond lopres 29.26" at 08:56, now rising, recent heavy snow.12:56 MST.


Figure 4: The storm at 19:00 MST, near the time that I began to see lightning at my location on Pocatello's West Bench. A very distinct band of clouds, in the form of a comma-shaped tail, sits right over eastern Idaho. The shape, and cold cloud tops, mark a very dynamic and potent weather feature. Frequent lightning and an instant blizzard with heavy snow swept by a west gale was the result.


15:00 MST: The wind's blowing the snow around really good--white palls are being blown across the yard. Sometimes the snow swirls around in small vortexes. Not much has accumulated--the snow's staying light, but steady. The trees are swaying and bouncing around, sometimes in a very dramatic manner. We're under blizzard warning now. Sustained winds are approaching 40 mph at PIH. Visibilities are reduced considerably at times. 15:08 MST.

19:27 MST: Lightning & thunder! Since about 19:10, fairly frequent for a winter storm. I videotaped some. The lightning started up after a lull in the snow. Wind continues. Lightning coming from the west and over the Portneuf Mountains to the E and ENE. 19:28 PST.


Figure 5: Distant lightning backlights some trees, among the first visual evidence that a particularly strong snow squall was approaching Pocatello, ID.


19:29 MST: Blizzard! Snow / blowing snow. Looks like windshift to west! 19:30 MST.

19:56 MST: Getting periodic heavy snow, blowing on a west wind. Doppler radar shows a well-defined frontal band pushing through the area with a thin line of moderate to heavy cells leading the way. The line has already pushed east of here. At the Pocatello airport, thundersnow was reported, heavy at times, with freezing fog. Wind shifted from 180 deg 38 G 46 mph P 53 at 19:14 MDT to west, 260 deg, 31 G 44 at 19:22 MST. Strong pressure surge from 29.49" (min) at 19:05 to 29.64" at 19:40: 0.15" (5.0 mb) in 35 mins! Good frontal passage. Burley also reported thundersnow, with pres surge. 20:09 MST.


Figure 6 and 7: A flash of lightning, literally overhead, begins to illuminate the landscape, top. Just 1/30 of a second later, the brightness almost overwhelms the camera. The white haze is a fall of heavy snow, being carried on a strong wind.



21:44 MST: The heavy snow band dumped a quick 2.5" to 3.0" of snow in the back yard. I'm consistently getting snow base measures of 12.5" to 12.75" now. The yard has risen! No snow falling now, and winds are much lighters. 21:45 MST.

January 2, 2004: Friday

07:25 MST: (Pocatello, ID) Snowing again. Another inch added. Last night, I saw the nowcast for yesterday's squall--NWS Pocatello mentioned possible gusts to 60 mph; though squall gusts reached 54 mph (5-second) at PIH, I don't think the squall's winds reached that level here. Looked like mid-40s, possibly briefly to 50.

Uncle Don was out shoveling snow as the squall approached and lightning started firing. He drove back here with cousin Bill as the front hit. The precip started as hail according to Don, first hitting one side of the car (blowing horizontally), then nearly swinging around to the other side. Roads that were nearly bare earlier in the day were buried during the storm, and driving became more treacherous.

According to the Weather Channel, Eugene, Salem and Portland each had 6" of snow during yesterday's storm. 09:04 MST.

16:44 MST: Morning measurements showed a 14" base, maybe up to 14.5", so we had 4.5" - 5.0" from the storm.16:48 MST.


Figure 8 and 9: The morning after, snow lay deep on the lee side of homes, top, but wind exposed places were nearly swept clean, such as the roof of the car in the photo on the bottom. The location shown in this photographs is the West Bench of Pocatello, elevation 4,640 feet.



January 01, 2004: Meteorological Details

The surface map for 06:00 HRS PST is shown in Figure 10, below, landfall of a potent storm. Note the closely-packed isobars along the low's southeast side. Has this system tracked 200 miles north, a fairly potent windstorm may have been the result in the Willamette Valley, with gusts approaching 60 mph based on the storm's results in Northern California. Also of interest are the tightly packed isobars on the low's northeast side, with a focus in the vicinity of the Columbia River Gorge. The area of higher pressure in Eastern Washington is the result of cold air pooled at the surface. Some of this chilled air was pulled eastward through the Gorge, then southward down the Willamette Valley. The result: snow, with a half foot falling in many areas.



Figure 11, below, shows the trend in the PDX-DLS pressure gradient as the January 1, 2004 cyclone progressed northeastward across Oregon, one view of a west-east orientation across part of the state. A fairly strong negative gradient developed as the low moved ashore. This favored east winds through the Gorge, which resulted in cold air in the Columbia Basin pouring into the Willamette Valley. The gradient quickly switched to positive when the cyclone crossed the Cascades, a situation that favors west winds. The cold air didn't stick around long in the Willamette Valley, and snow changed to rain at many locations before the precipitation broke. The positive gradient only lasted for a short while; values are typically weakly negative during the winter.


Figure 12, below, shows the trend in the OTH-AST pressure gradient as the January 1, 2004 cyclone progressed northeastward across Oregon, one view of a south-north orientation across the state. As the low passes to the south of the two coastal stations, the gradient rapidly goes negative. Once the low moves inland and sweeps to the northeast, eventually lifting north of both stations, the gradient quickly switches back to positive. Rapid gradient switches such as those depicted below characterize an intense storm.


Figure 13, below, shows the ACV-OTH gradient next to the OTH-AST. With the low passing north of Arcata, the ACV-OTH gradient goes strongly positive at the same time that the OTH-AST goes negative. This is the mark of a fairly intense cyclone landing in Southwest Oregon.



Figure 14, below, puts the 2004 storm in perspective. The ACV-OTH and OTH-AST gradients for the January 1, 2004 cyclone (blue tones) are compared to a major event on November 10, 1975 (orange and brown). Note how the change of scale (required to fit the 1975 storm on the graph) has compressed the curves for the 2004 for storm. The times on the x-axis are for the 1975 event; to line up the maximum gradient periods, the 2004 lines start at 19:00 PST 31DEC2003.

The 1975 storm is the most extreme Southwest Oregon cyclone for the period 1948 - 2003, and the intensity of its gradients far exceed the 2004 event. Though the 2004 cyclone was strong, the 1975 storm serves to remind us that events with significantly higher intensity are possible.



Figure 15, below, plots the cyclone's path, based on NCEP surface maps and satellite photo interpretation. The wobbly pattern is typical of midlatitude storms. Of interest is the storm's slowdown right as it made landfall in Southwest Oregon. This probably spared Northern California a stronger gale. The cyclone, being carried on a strong jet, resumed its fast pace as it crossed the Cascades and dropped into Central Oregon. Another slowdown occurred as the low encountered the Rockies and began to weaken.



Figure 16, below, shows the upper-air conditions at 500 mb for the time 16:00 PST January 1, 2004. The surface cyclone developed along a baroclinic band, part of which is evident over northern California going westward offshore--the region where the isotherms (white lines) nearly parallel the height lines (black). The surface cyclone is in southeast Washington at the time of this frame, right in a region where tightly-packed isotherms cut across the height lines--a barotropic zone where a large pool of cold air is advecting eastward, one of the ingredients for strong cyclogenesis, and an explanation for the low's persistence as it entered the mountainous west.



General Storm Data

Table 1, below, lists the barometric minimums for the January 1, 2004 storm at selected sites. Though these values are quite low, especially in Oregon, a number of Pacific Northwest windstorms have produced significantly lower readings. The most depressed pressures during this storm were in southwest Oregon, and included 29.20" at Roseburg at 06:53, and 29.16" at Buoy 46027 at 05:00 PST and at Sexton Summit at 05:56.

Sources: National Weather Service, Eureka, Portland and Seattle offices, METAR reports, and the National Data Buoy Center, historical data.

Location

Lowest
Pressure

Approx Time
of Lowest Pressure

California:    
Arcata

29.39"

05:00 HRS, 1st

Oregon:    
North Bend [1]

29.21"

06:00 HRS, 1st

Astoria

29.37"

08:00 HRS, 1st

Medford

29.24"

06:00 HRS, 1st

Eugene

29.22"

08:00 HRS, 1st

Salem

29.25"

08:00 HRS, 1st

Portland [2]

29.34"

10:00 HRS, 1st

Washington:    
Quillayute [3]

29.43"

13:00 HRS, 1st

Olympia

29.39"

12:00 HRS, 1st

Seattle (Sea-Tac)

29.39"

12:00 HRS, 1st

Bellingham

29.45"

13:00 HRS, 1st

     
AVERAGE

29.33"

 

Table 1 Notes:

[1] Data from the Cape Arago C-MAN station.

[2] Last of two occurrences in a row.

[3] Last of two occurrences in a row.


Figure 17, below: Coastal pressure traces over 48-hours reveal the approximate location of the cyclone's landfall. Of these four stations, the low passed closest to North Bend, in this case south of the station. A general progression of minimum pressures occurring later in the day in a northward direction is a mark of the storm's northeast track.


Table 2, below, lists the maximum gradients for some standard measures during the January 1, 2004 cyclone. Negative readings dominate, owing to the storm's southern track. Unlike other storms on similar paths, such as November 10, 1975 and February 7, 2002, the January 1, 2004 event didn't develop gradients of an extreme nature. The key measures for this comparison are the ACV-OTH and OTH-AST gradients. The gradient values for the 1975 storm are 2.5 to 3 times stronger! And 07FEB had twice the ACV-OTH gradient; interestingly, the 2004 storm had a slightly stronger negative gradient for OTH-AST than 07FEB, by about a millibar.

Though still below the -6.9 mb (-0.20") reading produced by the 1975 storm, the gradient of -5.6 mb (-0.17") across the Willamette Valley on January 1, 2004 is fairly decent for a negative reading. Local instant gusts of north 30 mph probably occurred in some areas of the valley.

Sources: National Weather Service, Eureka, Portland and Seattle offices, METAR reports, the National Data Buoy Center historical data, and the National Climatic Data Center, unedited surface observation forms (for historical storm pressure data).


Location

Max Gradient, mb

Approx Time
of Max Gradient

Coast:    
ACV-OTH

+9.7

07:00 HRS, 1st

OTH-AST [1]

-8.1

05:00 HRS, 1st

AST-UIL [2]

-3.4

06:00 HRS, 1st

ACV-AST [3]

+11.6

11:00 HRS, 1st

OTH-UIL [4]

-11.5

05:00 HRS, 1st

Interior:    
MFR-EUG [5]

+4.0

09:00 HRS, 1st

EUG-PDX

-5.6

07:00 HRS, 1st

PDX-SEA

-3.6

09:00 HRS, 1st

SEA-BLI

-3.6

07:00 HRS, 1st

AST-DLS

-7.8

05:00 HRS, 1st

Table 2 Notes:

[1] Max positive gradient +6.3 mb at 21:00 HRS.

[2] Last of two hourly occurrences, the other having happened the hour before. Also, max positive gradient +6.5 mb at 21:00 HRS.

[3] Max negative gradient -3.3 mb at 04 and 05:00 HRS.

[4] Max positive gradient +6.9 mb at 13:00 HRS.

[5] Max negative gradient -2.0 mb at 04:00 HRS.


Pressure Tendencies

Owing to its southern track, the January 1, 2004 event, favored Southwest Oregon and Northwest California with the strongest pressure changes. The values mark a strong pressure couplet in the southern section, with only modest tendencies in the northland. The low's slowdown as it moved ashore likely reduced the potential magnitude of the pressure swings. Even so, the -4.0 mb (-0.12") hourly drop at Medford is a fairly intense value for that station; the Columbus Day storm and the November 10, 1975 cyclone didn't even produce a downward tendency of this magnitude.

Source: National Weather Service, Eureka, Portland and Seattle offices, METAR reports, and the National Climatic Data Center, unedited surface observation forms (for historical storm pressure data).


Maximum Pressure Tendencies for the January 1, 2004 Storm

Location

Max
Hrly
Fall
mb

Time of
Max Fall
PST

Max
Hrly
Rise
mb

Time of
Max Rise
PST

California:        
Arcata

-2.7

00:00 HRS, 1st

+4.6

07:00 HRS, 1st

Oregon:        
North Bend [1]

-3.5

04:00 HRS, 1st

+3.0

09:00 HRS, 1st

Astoria

-2.1

05:00 HRS, 1st

+1.5

15:00 HRS, 1st

Medford

-4.0

04:00 HRS, 1st

+2.9

10:00 HRS, 1st

Eugene

-3.4

05:00 HRS, 1st

+3.6

10:00 HRS, 1st

Salem

-3.8

05:00 HRS, 1st

+3.3

11:00 HRS, 1st

Portland [2]

-2.6

06:00 HRS, 1st

+1.8

13:00 HRS, 1st

Washington:        
Quillayute [3]

-1.4

07:00 HRS, 1st

+1.1

21:00 HRS, 1st

Olympia

-2.4

06:00 HRS, 1st

+1.8

14:00 HRS, 1st

Seattle (Sea-Tac) [4]

-1.8

07:00 HRS, 1st

+1.4

17:00 HRS, 1st

Bellingham

-1.7

07:00 HRS, 1st

+1.3

22:00 HRS, 1st

         
AVERAGE

-2.7

 

+2.4

 

Table 4 Notes:

[1] Data are from the Cape Arago C-MAN station. Also, the +3.0 mb rise is the last of two hourly occurrences in a row.

[2] The -2.6 mb hourly fall is the last of two hourly occurrences in a row.

[3] The -1.4 mb hourly fall is the last of two hourly occurrences in a row. The +1.1 mb hourly rise is the last of three occurrences, the others having happened at 16 and 20:00 HRS.

[4] The -1.8 mb hourly fall is the last of two hourly occurrences in a row. The +1.4 mb rise is the last of three hourly occurrences, the other two having happened at 14 and 15:00 HRS.


Table 5, below, lists the peak wind and gust for eleven key stations in the Pacific Northwest, their direction, and their time of occurrence. "Peak Wind" is a 2-minute average, and "Peak Gust" is a 5-second average. By my own personal methodology, a wind event rates the term "windstorm" when the average peak gust of these eleven stations reaches 39.0 mph (gale force) or higher. Due to its very southern track, the January 1, 2004 cyclone didn't make the cut. This, however, does not mean that the storm wasn't strong; simply not many stations in this limited list were under the south-of-the-low gun. Moderate windstorms have an average of 45.0 to 54.9, and major windstorms are those that reach or exceed 55.0. Only a handful of storms have made the majors, including December 12, 1995, November 14, 1981 and October 12, 1962.

Note that the newer 5-second gust adopted by the NWS alters the meaning of the kind of storm ranking system I describe here. See "Adjustments to Modern Storms."

The tendency for north and northeast winds in much of the Northwest is a classic snow pattern (the average values for wind directions listed below are generally meaningless for this storm because the NE and NW values tend to cancel, putting much of the weight to the southerly values). Note that the southerly peak winds at Eugene and Portland were late in the day, when the pressure gradient had reversed from negative to positive behind the cyclone--winds were northerly at these stations earlier in the day, when snow occurred. Snow fell in many locations, including Seattle, Olympia, Portland, Salem, Eugene and even Medford.

Sources: National Climatic Data Center, Unedited Local Climatological Data. Some of the times listed in the table below are approximate.


Location

Peak
Wind
mph

Direction
Pk Wnd
degrees

Obs Time of
Peak Wind
PST

Peak
Gust
mph

Direction
Pk Gst
degrees

Obs Time of
Peak Gust
PST

California:            
Arcata

32

240

06:09 HRS, 1st

39

240

06:09 HRS, 1st

Oregon:            
North Bend

22

260

11:50 HRS, 1st

29

290

12:52 HRS, 1st

Astoria

18

060

06:55 HRS, 1st

21

070

06:55 HRS, 1st

Medford

31

140

06:53 HRS, 1st

38

130

06:53 HRS, 1st

Eugene

21

180

19:54 HRS, 1st

23

180

19:54 HRS, 1st

Salem

22

360

08:07 HRS, 1st

25

300

10:56 HRS, 1st

Portland

21

200

23:55 HRS, 1st

28

210

23:55 HRS, 1st

Washington:            
Quillayute

15

360

11:53 HRS, 1st

21

350

11:53 HRS, 1st

Olympia

15

350

09:54 HRS, 1st

17

360

09:54 HRS, 1st

Sea-Tac

14

020

07:56 HRS, 1st

16

050

07:56 HRS, 1st

Bellingham

21

030

13:53 HRS, 1st

28

040

13:53 HRS, 1st

             
AVERAGE

21.1

200

 

25.9

202

 

Last Modified: July 16, 2004
Page Created: June 14, 2004

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